School Bullying (Part 1 of 5)
The Definition of Bullying:
A desire to hurt + a hurtful action + a power imbalance + repetition (typically) + an unjust use of power + evident enjoyment by the aggressor + a sense of being oppressed on the part of the target.
Bullying among youths may take place in a variety of hostile acts that are carried out repeatedly over time.
The acts involve a real or perceived imbalance of power, with the more powerful child or group attacking those who are less powerful.
Bullying may be physical (hitting, kicking, spitting, pushing), verbal (taunting, malicious teasing, name calling, threatening), or psychological (spreading rumors, manipulating social relationships, or promoting social exclusion, extortion, or intimidation.)
In addition to direct and indirect bullying behavior, bullying may be of a sexual nature, motivated by bias or hate, or may be a part of a ritual or ceremony: Sexual bullying includes many of the actions typical of bullying behavior with the added actions of exhibitionism, voyeurism, sexual propositioning, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse (touching, physical contact, sexual assault)
Bias or Hate-Motivated Bullying:
Bullying is a basic bias against or hate for a person or group. If the behavior or incident is hate-motivated, it may, in some instances, constitute a hate crime. Some examples of hate-motivated bullying include taunting one’s race, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, or physical or mental disabilities. The bullying behavior may also be aggressive, antagonistic, and assaultive.
Hazing is a form of aggressive behavior that usually involves intimidation and humiliation during an initiation process for a club, group, or sports team. It may involve harassment through unnecessary or disagreeable actions that ridicule and embarrass the target and may escalate to actions serious and offensive enough to be declared criminal.
On Monday, we’ll examine the effects of bullying.
Presentation prepared by ACS Executive Director, Dr. Philippe Rey.